There are many issues to pay attention to in ginger cultivation

2020-01-04

Ginger has medicinal effects such as vomiting, divergence, expelling cold, strengthening the spleen and stomach, and treating gastroenteritis. Ginger can appear in many places. Good medicinal value and rich use value bring rich profits to growers. . However, due to many years of continuous cropping, unreasonable fertilization, and drug use by ginger farmers, and soil blindness and geological deterioration due to blindly smoked land and too shallow cultivated land, in recent years, ginger roots have been burned, frequent pests and diseases, yields, and quality have been reduced Waiting for a series of problems has made the majority of ginger farmers miserable. Is there any way to grow ginger? Ginger is a perennial herbaceous plant of the ginger family. Its origin is tropical regions such as Southeast Asia. It is currently widely cultivated in the world. Both south and north of China can be planted, and the scale of planting has gradually increased in recent years. Ginger grows well in humid and warm climates, and is not resistant to low-temperature weather such as frost. It is more suitable for seedlings to grow between 20 and 25 ° C, and growth stops below 15 ° C. Therefore, the appropriate sowing time for ginger is from late April to early May. I have summarized some experiences and hope to help everyone.
1 Choice of growing environment
The growth environment of ginger requires warmth, and it can germinate quickly at about 24 ° C. The growth of the environment over 30 ° C is weak. During the growth of stems and leaves during the day, the appropriate temperature is required to reach about 25 ° C, and at night it is maintained at about 18 ° C. A certain temperature difference between day and night can effectively accumulate more substances. Ginger likes to grow in a cool place, and it is not resistant to strong light. Therefore, when planting ginger, you need to plant crops or set up a shade to properly shade the ginger and prevent direct sunlight. Ginger's root system is shallow and underdeveloped, and it is not resistant to drought and floods. Therefore, the selection of planting land requires that the soil moisture content is appropriate and drainage and irrigation are convenient.
2 Breeding
About 25 days before sowing, remove the ginger for seeding from the storage room, clean up the dirt on the surface, and spread it on a clean floor for moderate drying. Remember not to expose it to strong light. If the light intensity is too large, you can properly Cover the straw mat, dry it for 1 to 2 days, and collect the ginger back in a cool room for 2 to 3 days. Cover the straw mat. At the same time, it is necessary to strictly select the seeds, eliminate the ginger with weak growth, soft flesh, and abnormal color, and choose the ginger with no frost damage, bright color, hypertrophy, and hard texture. Then, the seed ginger is germinated at a temperature of about 25 ° C for 20 to 25 days before seeding. At this time, the young shoots are strong and full; you can also choose to make impotence at a depth of about 1m in a sheltered and sunny location for germination. The amount of ginger depends on the total amount of ginger. Then dry the grass with a thickness of about 10 cm. Put the ginger in it, cover it with hay, build an arch, and cover it with film. The temperature at night is low, so cover it at night. One layer of straw curtain keeps the temperature of the concrete surface at about 22 ° C. Generally, the requirements for seeding are 0.6 to 2.0 cm in length and 0.6 to 1.2 cm in thickness.
3 Fine land preparation and fertilizer application
Select soil with fertile soil, rich nutrient content, strong fertilizer and water retention capacity, convenient drainage and irrigation, loose soil layer, good air permeability, and pH value less than 7, deep soil turning is required, at least 30cm, and sufficient base fertilizer is applied, and full maturation can be selected Organic fertilizer 75t / hm2, supercalcium phosphate 750 ~ 1120 kg / hm2, fully flatten the land, break up large soil blocks, and adopt high tillage cultivation method, the height of the tiller exceeds 20cm, and then deepen the surface Ditch (about 10cm) for sowing.
4 Sowing
The weight of the ginger seed pieces should be 50-75g. Leave one strong short bud on each piece, and then soak the ginger pieces in the ethephon solution. After 15 minutes, the seeds can be removed for seeding. In order to facilitate the operation before planting, first irrigate appropriate bottom water so that the soil on the ridge surface contains a certain amount of water. The sowing method can adopt the flat sowing method, that is, keep the level of ginger when it is planted, and gently press it into the mud with your hand to ensure that the ginger buds are approximately the same height as the surface of the ditch. After the sowing, cover the soil in time and the thickness is 4.5. cm or so, then fully rake the surface. The suitable sowing amount of ginger is 4.5 ~ 7.5 t / hm2, equivalent to 100,000 ~ 120,000 plants / hm2.
5 Scientific Fertilizer Pipe Water
At the germination stage of ginger, no topdressing is required. When one or two new branches are germinated and the height of the seedlings is 30cm, apply about 300kg / hm2 of ammonium sulfate as seedling fertilizer. After the beginning of autumn, the ginger enters the expansion stage. Increase the amount of fertilizer, and apply cake fertilizer of about 1125kg / hm2, compound fertilizer of 750kg / hm2, etc., on this basis, raise the soil once, and then raise the soil appropriately 2 times while watering. In the middle of September, 375kg / hm2 of compound fertilizer was applied as top dressing. Before planting, the bottom water is poured down. In the water management of seedlings, the principle of less watering and hard irrigation should be adhered to, so that the water content in the soil is maintained at 65% to 70%. The temperature in summer is relatively high. Or in the evening, it is advisable to do a good job of drainage in case of heavy rain. After the beginning of autumn, ginger grows vigorously and requires more water. Generally, it is irrigated about once every 5 days to ensure that the water content in the soil is 75% ~ 80. %.
6 Harvest and storage
The suitable harvest time of fresh ginger is generally in early November, at which time no frost has occurred; ginger can be harvested at the same time as fresh ginger, or it can be harvested at the beginning of autumn, but it is generally not recommended to harvest it in advance to prevent infection by bacteria and affect the ginger quality. During the storage of ginger, the ditch around the storage cellar must be kept open for drainage in time.
7 Pest control
Ginger has fewer diseases and insect pests, and the main cause is ginger rot (ginger fever). The incidence of the disease is mostly around the beginning of autumn, especially in the case of heavy showers and low-lying water, which is likely to cause the disease to spread. In the early stage of disease onset, the plant leaf tips began to wither, and then yellowed along the leaf veins. After a few days, the entire plant stalks and leaves became yellow-brown and gradually died, and in severe cases died in pieces. Ginger block began to develop, and it appeared water-soaked yellow lesions, which gradually softened and rotted, giving off a foul odor.
Control methods: Implement rotation cultivation for more than 3 years; strictly select disease-free ginger seeds and disinfect the seed pieces; choose drainage and fertile and loose land cultivation and open field drainage ditch; unplug the diseased plants in time and sprinkle them around the diseased plants Lime disinfection; spray 50% Daisen in 1000 times liquid twice or three times after the onset.

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